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Microprocessor : Buses and Architecture

About System Buses:

The most famous microprocessors are Intel 8086 and 8085.

To transfer data, System buses are used. There are of three types of a microprocessor:

1. Address Bus

2. Data Bus

3. Control bus

Address Buses are unidirectional i.e. address always goes out of the microprocessor.

It is a group of lines that send a memory address or a device address to the memory or the peripheral.

Data Buses are bi-directional, they transfer data in and out of the microprocessor.

Control Buses, as the name suggests, provide signals to control the data flow.

About the Architecture of a Microprocessor:

Depending upon the storage of program and data in memory, there are two types of architectures:

  1. Von Neumann Architecture

  2. Harvard Architecture

Architecture of a Microprocessor
Architecture of a Microprocessor

Von Neumann Architecture:

  • It contains a program counter, and the instructions are executed sequentially manner i.e. by one instruction execution. It does not have a separate program and data memory.

  • Two clock cycles are required to execute a single instruction.

Harvard Architecture:

  • In contrast to Von Neumann Architecture, It has a separate program and data memory.

  • An instruction is executed in a single cycle.

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