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Introduction to Microprocessors and Microcontrollers


A microprocessor is a clock-driven, multi-purpose register-based electronic device.

It reads instruction from memory and according to the given instruction, it processes the input data.

A microprocessor also has decision-making functionality in terms of changing the sequence of program execution.

Example: 8085 Microprocessor:

8085 Microprocessor:
8085 Microprocessor:

About 8085 microprocessors:

  1. It’s an 8-bit microprocessor.

  2. It’s a 40-pin IC.

  3. It can operate with a 3 MHz single-phase clock frequency and power supply of +5V.

  4. It has 16 address lines.

  5. Lower address buses(0 to 7) are multiplexed with data buses and hence the number of pins could be reduced.


A microprocessor along with memory and input/output peripheral devices when embedded on a single.


Here we’ll talk about 8051 Microcontrollers;

8051 Microcontrollers
8051 Microcontrollers

The above diagram shows a 40-pin IC of 8051 microcontroller.

About 8051 Microcontroller:

  1. It’s an 8-bit microcontroller.

  2. The 8-bit means it’s data bus size is 8-bit wide.

  3. 16-bit unidirectional address bus.

  4. Instruction cycle of 1 microsecond with 12 MHz crystal.

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