Updated: Nov 3
VLSI enthusiasts must be aware of the fact that today in 2021, relying on the present CMOS technology is not the only solution. There is a great deal of research to dig out the next generation technology in manufacturing chips sector.
Today the memory based on CMOS technologies such as SRAM (Static Random access memory) suffers from the issue of alarming high leakage current at lower technology nodes, DRAM (Dynamic Random access memory) requires a refreshing current for charging of the capacitor hence is not quite energy efficient as per today's requirement. Moreover, the NAND flash memory using the CMOS technology suffers from the limited endurance i.e. can be read/write for a finite number of cycles that is not enough.
Thus, the basic concept is CMOS does not provide a memory basically because it is volatile in nature. There are other major issues associated with it such as high leakage power dissipation, not quite tolerant to noise and crosstalk issues, limitation in threshold voltage scaling as well as architectural bottleneck.
Hence, what is needed today is a "SMART", "UNIVERSAL" memory device that achieves:
Ultra low power requirement
Minimal leakage power dissipation
High endurance and durable
Able to compute in-memory itself
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